aka Barker

The Hughesville district is located near the headwaters of the Dry Fork of Belt Creek, northeast of the rich Neihart district in the Little Belt Mountains. Most of the district falls within the boundaries of Judith Basin County, with just a few mines located in Cascade County.

The gravels along Yogo Gulch, about 15 miles southeast of the Hughesville district, attracted prospectors as early as the 1860s. These early miners did not stay long after being confronted by unfriendly Native Americans, but others returned to work the creek by 1879. That fall, E. A. "Buck" Barker and Patrick H. Hughes left Yogo to prospect in the adjacent region, staking the Barker and Grey Eagle claims near Galena Creek in October 1879 (Robertson and Roby 1951; Wolle 1963).

The excitement engendered by their finds brought others to the new district, and claims multiplied rapidly. Hiriam L. Wright and H. K. Edwards located the Wright and Edwards mine; Oscar Olinger, Pat Donahue, and August Okerman claimed the Homestake, Hancock, Maggie, Summit, and DeSoto lodes; J. T. Armington discovered the May and Edna mine; John E. Williams staked the Tiger claim; and Moulton Consolidated Mining Co. located the Belfont, Harrison, Moulton, and Pioneer lodes. By 1880, the district had several hundred claims and nearly 100 men working (Robertson and Roby 1951; Wolle 1963; Sommer 1991).

The Hughesville district boomed in the early 1880s, and several camps dotted the length of Galena Creek including Hughesville, Gold Run, Central City, Leadville, Poverty Flat or Galena City, and Barker. Local mines produced large quantities of high grade ore from shallow argentiferous lead-carbonate deposits. Initially this ore was hauled to Fort Benton and then shipped by steamboat down the Missouri River for smelting (Robertson and Roby 1951; Sommer 1991).

Col. George Clendenin formed the Clendenin Mining and Smelting Co. in 1881 to construct a smelter near Barker. The plant, capable of processing four tons of ore per day, contained two Blake crushers, a set of Cornish rolls, a Baker blower, two reverberatory furnaces, and a 40-horsepower engine. It began operations in December 1881 and ran a total of 18 months before it closed at the end of 1883. The smelter treated 934 tons of ore in 1882, yielding 240,542 pounds of base bullion with 20,527 ounces of silver and 41 ounces of gold. Most of the ore treated in the smelter came from the May and Edna mine, along with the Wright and Edwards, Barker, Grey Eagle, and Silver Belle. During those two years of operations, the smelter produced $375,000 worth of bullion. A second smaller smelter, also built in the early 1880s, operated only a short time because it lacked refractory material for a lining (Weed 1900; MacKnight 1892; Sommer 1991; Robertson and Roby 1951; Swallow and Trevarthen 1890).

Activity in the district slowed considerably after 1883. The supply of rich, near-surface ore had been depleted and the newly booming mines around Neihart attracted many from the Hughesville area. The district entertained a revival in the following decade, however. The May and Edna, Liberty, and Wallace mines all reported rich strikes in 1890. The Montana Central Railroad completed a branch line to Barker the next year, and local mines were able to ship ores easily to the smelters at Great Falls, Helena, and Neihart. The boom was short-lived, however. The demonetization of silver led to a drop in the price of silver in 1893 and the closure of all but the most productive mines. The Tiger and Moulton were the only mines worked in 1894, but others reopened later in the decade. The smelter burned in 1895, and three years later Charles Thaler leased the smelter grounds, hired four men, and recovered lead and silver bullion from the old slag dump, reporting good results from digging near the old furnaces. In 1903, the branch railroad made its last run (Sommer 1991; Robertson and Roby 1951; Weed 1900).

Activity in the Hughesville district in the twentieth century centered around the Block P mine. T. C. Power of Helena owned the Wright and Edwards mine in the early 1900s and soon acquired the Barker, Grey Eagle, and Belt mines, operating the group under the name of the Block P mine. Power built a mill at Barker in 1910-1911 and brought the mine up to good production by the 1920s. He sold to St. Joseph Lead Co. in 1927 and the new company expanded operations until the mine became the largest producer of lead in the state by 1929. After sitting idle for most of the 1930s, the Block P was reopened briefly in the early 1940s. It has not operated since 1943 (Sommer 1991).

The Hughesville district produced 409,002 tons of ore from 1913 to 1948, most of it from the Block P mine. This ore yielded 3435.13 ounces of gold, 2,653,375 ounces of silver, 788,900 pounds of copper, 44,366,327 pounds of lead, and 17,939,544 pounds of zinc. In addition to the mines mentioned above, other important claims included the Dockter Kalloch, Manitoba, T. W., Magnolia, St. Louis, Fairplay, and Bon Ton (Robertson and Roby 1951).

The Little Belt Mountains are a broad dome-shaped uplift. The oldest rocks, found near the center of the region, are Archean gneisses and schists. Sedimentary rocks, ranging in age from Cambrian to Cretaceous, underlie the Hughesville district. Porphycitic granite is the most common intrusive. Other types of intrusive rock include syenite, pocpycitic syenite, porphycitic diocite, and monzonite. The sedimentary rocks are metamorphosed near the contact with igneous intrusions (Robertson and Roby 1951; Sahinen 1935).

The Hughesville district is known for its silver-bearing galena ore. Weed (1900) described two classes of ore. The first is found in fissure veins in the Hughesville syenite, while the second is located along contact planes between limestone and porphyry. The Barker and Wright and Edwards mines contain the first class of ore, and the Carter, May and Edna, Tiger, and Moulton have the second class. Gangue minerals are most often calcite and quartz (Sahinen 1935; Robertson and Roby 1951).


Weed (1900) described the Barker (Hughesville) district as embracing ...the basin-like area lying north of Dry Fork of Belt Creek...and inclosed [sic] between Barker Mountain on the west, Clendennin [sic] on the north, and Mixes Baldy and the adjacent peaks on the east. The basin is drained by Galena Creek, on whose banks the settlements of Barker and Hughesville are situated. Robertson and Roby (1951) describe a similar area: The Barker district includes the mountainous areas drained by the Dry Fork of Belt Creek and its tributaries west of the divide between the Dry Fork of Belt Creek and Dry Wolf Creek and the areas drained by the headwater branches of Otter and Arrow Creeks. Figure 1 shows the Hughesville mining district as described by Weed (1900) and Robertson and Roby (1951) within the larger area as defined by the AMRB (1994).



E. A. "Buck" Barker and Patrick Hughes located the Barker and Grey Eagle claims in late October 1879, the first made in the new mining district. These claims, along with the adjoining Equator claim, were worked together as the Barker mine. It is located on Galena Creek above Hughesville.

The Barker mine was a heavy producer of rich galena ore from 1881 to 1883; the mine yielded 300 tons of ore in 1883, with 65 ounces of silver per ton and 40 percent lead. Although production dropped or ceased altogether for the rest of the decade, the mine once again shipped considerable quantities of ore in the early 1890s when it was owned and operated by Paris Gibson, T. C. Power, C. X. Larrabie, and W. G. Conrad. Twelve men were on the payroll in 1892. Workings in 1898 included a two-compartment shaft down to 180 feet and a level at 50 feet. United Smelting and Refining Co. leased the claims in the late 1890s and operated the mine until about 1902, shipping ore to the smelter at Great Falls. Power acquired ownership of the property by 1902 and reorganized it under the Block P Mining Co. See the Block P Mine for further information (Weed 1900; MacKnight 1892; Hogan and Oliver 1892; WMW 1898; Robertson and Roby 1951).

Block P

T. C. Power acquired ownership of several of the most important claims in the Hughesville district by 1902, including the Wright and Edwards, Barker, Grey Eagle, and Belt. He combined these with a number of other patented and unpatented claims to form the Block P mine. The company constructed a 75-ton gravity mill in 1910-1911 to process ore from the mine, increasing it to 100 tons in 1912. Thirty-five men worked at the mine in 1910, while two years later the work force was up to sixty. The 400-foot shaft was equipped with a steam hoist (Sommer 1991; Robertson and Roby 1951; Walsh and Orem 1912).

Operations at the Block P picked up in the 1920s. Production in 1922 amounted to 261.31 ounces of gold, 300 ounces of silver, and 1,959,320 pounds of lead. Two years later the mine workings included two hoists, a compressor, electric generator, three boilers, dry house, warehouses, powder magazine, mill, bunkhouses, and boarding house. A fleet of trucks began to replace mules in 1925 for the haul to Monarch. Despite these improvements, lack of electricity hampered development, and both transportation and milling were considered inadequate (Sommer 1991).

Power sold his interests to the St. Joseph Lead Co. in 1927 for more than $500,000, and the new owners began to improve operations. The company constructed a 400-ton selective flotation plant south of Barker, rebuilt the rail line from Monarch, brought in electricity, set up a new steel headframe, and built a 10,250 foot tramway to the processing plant. Extensive development within the mine workings took the main shaft eventually to the 1400-foot level. The work paid off, and in 1929 the Block P became the largest lead producer in Montana, milling 106,537 tons of ore. The following year the company cleared a profit of $300,000 (Robertson and Roby 1951; Sommer 1991).

The market slowed with the Depression, and the Block P ceased production late in 1930, laying off 350 workers. St. Joseph Lead Co. resumed operations from 1941-1943, then sold the mine and equipment to Thorson Brothers and Brazee, who dismantled the mill and removed the railroad tracks. American Smelting and Refining Co. purchased the mine in 1944, but little work has been done on the property since then (Robertson and Roby 1951; Sommer 1991).

According to Robertson and Roby (1951)

The main vein of the Barker and Wright-Edwards claims occupies a well-defined, persistent fissure in a mass, or plug, of granular syenite which has intruded Barker granite porphyry. The syenite plug is cut by numerous dikes and sheets of porphyry....[T]he sulphide minerals occur in bands, lenses, and as disseminations.

The Block P mine was the largest metal producer in Judith Basin County, yielding 405,852 tons of ore from 1915 to 1948. The ore contained 3332.13 ounces of gold, 2,578,224 ounces of silver, 775,112 pounds of copper, 42,750,417 pounds of lead, and 17,848,398 pounds of zinc. Although the mine (under the names of the Barker Group, Wright and Edwards, and Block P Co.) reported production every year from 1910-1933, except 1920, the heaviest production occurred during the 1920s (Robertson and Roby 1951; WPA 1941).


About half a mile north of the Block P mine, the Carter claim was located in the 1880s. Clifton and Zeigler owned the mine in 1892 but had bonded it, evidently to E. J. Barker and John Sinclair, for $22,000. When MacKnight examined the mine in 1892, three shifts of men were doing development work. The shaft was down to 180 feet and eventually went 40 feet deeper. The tunnel was in 80 feet and crews were crosscutting as well; the adit was later increased to 700 feet. Mine improvements in 1892 included a shaft house and steam hoist. While the Carter produced high-grade ore during its early years, there are no records of production (MacKnight 1892; Robertson and Roby 1951).

Dockter Kalloch (Dockter Calloch)

The Queen Esther Mining Co. located the Dockter Kalloch claim in September 1887 north of the Liberty mine and east of the Barker claim. Two short adits provided access to the mine. Before the arrival of the railroad, the company shipped its lead-silver-zinc ore out but soon found it hardly worth the effort: the owners paid $52 per ton in freight charges and netted just $52.48. There are no records for production before 1917, but intermittent work by lessees from 1917-1943 yielded 133 tons of ore which contained 0.39 ounce of gold, 4004 ounces of silver, 43 pounds of copper, 63,156 pounds of lead, and 4143 pounds of zinc (MacKnight 1892; Robertson and Roby 1951).

Fairplay and Bon Ton

These two claims are found on the east side of Barker Mountain, about three-quarters of a mile west of Hughesville in Cascade County. Although they were located in the 1880s and worked intermittently until about 1892, the mines then lay idle until 1942. Thorson brothers leased the claims that year, followed by other lessees until work ceased in 1946. During those four years, operators shipped 1956 tons of sorted ore to the United States Smelting, Refining, & Mining Co. smelter at Midvale, Utah. The ore yielded 7.0 ounces of gold, 8793 ounces of silver, 1863 pounds of copper, 289,600 pounds of lead, and 749,400 pounds of zinc. There has been no production since that time (Robertson 1951).


The Liberty mine encompasses 7 patented claims east of the Barker mine. The United States Refining and Smelting Co. leased the property in 1897. At that time, the inclined shaft was 190 feet deep, 30 men worked in two tunnels driven along the vein, and the mine shipped two to three carloads of ore each week. Production records from 1913-1947 show that the Liberty mine produced 2957 tons of ore which contained 102.61 ounces of gold, 70,808 ounces of silver, 13,313 pounds of copper, 1,531,332 pounds of lead, and 75,366 pounds of zinc (Weed 1900; Robertson and Roby 1951).

Magnolia and St. Louis

These two claims are found about three-quarters of a mile northeast of the Barker mine. Jesse L. Henry located the Magnolia in July 1887. Ten years later, the St. Louis claim was worked from a 200-foot adit. This was the more productive of the two claims and was developed extensively by 1942. The St. Louis shipped a few thousand tons of ore that averaged 44 percent lead, 20 percent zinc, and contained 37 ounces of silver per ton. The Magnolia claim had a 150-foot adit but produced only a small quantity of ore (Weed 1900; Robertson and Roby 1951).


Located in 1889 on Manitoba Mountain, the Manitoba mine looked promising initially. E. J. Barker purchased the claim and organized the Ontario Mining Co. to work the property. Crews sank a 130-foot shaft at the point of discovery and removed two carloads of rich ore that averaged 98 ounces of silver per ton. The mine soon developed problems with flooding, however, so the company began driving a tunnel to work the vein at the 400-foot level. The results may not have succeeded since nothing more is written about the mine (MacKnight 1892).

May and Edna

J. T. Armington located the May and Edna claims about three-quarters of a mile north of the Block P mine. Although Robertson and Roby (1951) date his claims as August 1885, they may have been claimed several years earlier since Weed (1900) notes that the May and Edna mine was the primary supplier of ore for the Clendenin smelter, which operated from 1881-1883. The lower adit reached 700 feet in length. The mine was a strong producer in the early years of the district, but Weed found the workings inaccessible when he visited in 1894 and 1897.


The Moulton was one of a group of four claims (Belfont, Harrison, Moulton, and Pioneer) located by the Moulton Consolidated Mining Co. between July 1886 and September 1889. It is situated on Galena Creek, northeast of the Block P mine (Robertson and Roby 1951).

Descriptions of the workings of the Moulton mine vary widely. While some sources indicate a shallow shaft, others suggest one much deeper. An article in Western Mining World (1898) noted the shaft had reached 100 feet, with levels at 50 and 100 feet, the same year the mine inspector reported the shaft at 110 feet. Earlier mine inspectors, however, noted that the new three-compartment shaft had reached 155 feet in 1891 and was down to 307 feet a year later (WMW 1898; Byrne and Hunter 1898; Hogan and Oliver 1891; Hogan and Oliver 1892).

Regardless of the depth of the workings, the Moulton was a heavy producer of ore during the 1890s. The mine shipped 3000 tons of galena ore in 1898, averaging 20-40 ounces of silver per ton. A year or two later the Diamond R Co. constructed a 150-ton concentrator to process low grade ores from the Moulton dumps. It is not clear how long this plant was in operation. Work revived on the Moulton claims in 1940 when Thorson brothers leased the ground and hired four men to drive a new tunnel. It is unknown how long this work lasted, and there are no production records for the Moulton mine (Weed 1900; Byrne and Hunter 1900; WPA 1940).

Queen Esther

Although a writer in 1898 suggested that the Queen Esther mine "portends to be a hummer," the bright prospects evidently fizzled. The mine shipped four carloads of ore in 1897 from two tunnels, 75 and 95 feet in length. The following year, the "Big Four of Barker" - T. W. Maloney, Louis Goslin, Jack McAskill, and Joe Drinville - leased the mine and lengthened the main tunnel to 150 feet. They claimed that the ore removed from the tunnel was rich enough to pay all expenses. There is little mention of the mine in the literature after that point (WMW 1898; Weed 1900).

Silver Bell

The Silver Bell was one of the earliest mines in the Hughesville district. H. C. Foster located the claim in October 1880, about two-and-a-half miles northwest of Barker; part of the mine lies in Cascade County. The Silver Bell produced heavily in the early years and sent 2500 tons of ore to the Clendenin smelter in 1883, yielding an average of 21 ounces of silver and 50 percent lead per ton. Another 420 tons of ore taken from the lower workings that year proved too base for the local smelter and had to remain on the dump until the railroad arrived in 1891; this rich ore was reported to contain 200 ounces of silver per ton (MacKnight 1892; Robertson 1951).

After remaining idle from 1884-1890, the mine reopened under the operations of J. T. Armington and E. D. Barker & Co. The upper levels produced 8 carloads of ore in 1892 while the lower workings yielded 20 carloads. The mine closed again until 1928 or 1929 when Paul Vdovic and others leased the claims. They shipped 58 tons of ore in 1929, which averaged 42 ounces of silver and 42 percent lead. There has been no activity at the Silver Bell since 1929 (MacKnight 1892; Robertson 1951).


The Tiger claim is found in Galena Gulch, northeast of the Block P. John E. Williams located the mine in June 1884 along the same vein as the Moulton mine. Despite its early discovery, the Tiger did not begin to pay off until workers found a lead four-and-a-half feet in width in May 1892. Assay results from this vein of pure galena showed 150 ounces of silver per ton. Two years later the mine tunnel was 335 feet into the mountain, and by 1898 the shaft had reached the 120-foot level while the tunnel was 550 feet long. Although the ore was not as rich as the initial lead, it averaged 30 to 40 percent lead and 18 to 20 ounces of silver per ton in 1898. At that point, the mine had shipped close to 1000 tons of ore and was producing 10 to 20 carloads each summer. After a long period of inactivity, lessees worked the Tiger and neighboring T.W. mine from 1947-1948. Croff and Montague took 146 tons of ore from the Tiger the first year and a total of 60 tons from both mines the following year. There are no records of production for the mine (MacKnight 1892; WMW 1898; Weed 1900; Robertson and Roby 1951).


The T.W. mine is located up the hill from the Tiger mine and is often discussed in conjunction with the Tiger and Moulton claims. John M. Connolly located the mine in May 1884, but the Ideal Mining Co. had taken over operations by 1892. At that time, the shaft had reached the 140-foot level, only to encounter problems with flooding. The company then ran an adit in 430 feet to tap the lead. The mine had shipped 400 tons of ore by 1892. Six years later, Western Mining World reported that E. J. Barker had taken over work on the T. W. mine and was clearing the main tunnel, suggesting that the mine had not been worked for some time. Barker's operations at the T. W. may have been short-lived since Robertson and Roby (1951) claim that United Smelting and Refining Co. leased the mine in 1898, shipping ore to the company's smelter at Great Falls. Work was only intermittent after that date. The most recent operations occurred in 1947-1948, when Croff and Montague leased the upper workings of both the T. W. and Tiger claims. After shipping 146 tons of ore from the Tiger the first year, the lessees removed 60 tons from both claims the following year (MacKnight 1892; WMW 1898; Robertson and Roby 1951).

Wright and Edwards

Hiriam L. Wright and H. K. Edwards located one of the most important mines in the Hughesville district in 1880. Within a short time, T. C. Power acquired ownership of the mine that included the two original claims in addition to the Power, Neptune, and Joe Hill. By 1892, the mine had produced 2700 tons of ore, processed at the Clendenin smelter. Although this early ore averaged 42 ounces of silver and 48 percent lead per ton, reports later in the decade showed 30 ounces of silver and 40-50 percent lead per ton (MacKnight 1892; Weed 1900; Sommer 1991).

An explosion in April 1892 at the Wright and Edwards destroyed the steam hoist and shaft building, constructed a year earlier, but the company worked quickly to get the mine back in operation. The two-compartment shaft had reached 180 feet in 1897, and a year later was down to 200 feet. The 100-foot level was developed with 750 feet of tunnel, and a 30 horsepower Griffith & Wedge engine operated the bucket hoist. United Smelting and Refining Co. leased the mine in 1898, employing 25 men. The mine turned out enough ore that year to be ranked as the largest lead producer in the Hughesville district. T. C. Power consolidated the Wright and Edwards mine with the Barker and Grey Eagle in 1902, forming the Block P. See the discussion of the Block P for further information (MacKnight 1892; WMW 1898; Weed 1900; Byrne and Hunter 1898; Robertson and Roby 1951).


Other mines in the district mentioned in the literature include the Pride of the West, Top Hand, Ida May, Silver Gulch, Blankenship, Forest, Dry Fork, and Paragon (MacKnight 1892; Weed 1900; WMW 1898; Robertson and Roby 1951).


Byrne, John, and Frank Hunter

1898 10th Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana.

1900 12th Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana.

Calderhead, J. H.

1898 "Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry, 6th Annual Report."

Calderhead, J. H. and O. M. Holmes

1900 "Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry, 7th Annual Report."

Hogan, Joseph and Jacob Oliver

1891 Third Annual Report of Inspector of Mines, for the fiscal year 1891, Journal Publishing Company, Helena.

1892 4th Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana.

Ingalls, Walter Renton

1931 "World Survey of the Zinc Industry", Min. Met. Soc. America, New York.

Lungren, Waldemar

1933 "Differentiation and Ore Deposition, Cordilleran Region of the United States", Ore Deposits of the Western States (Lindgren Volume), pp. 152- 180, American Institute of Mining and Metal Engineering.

MacKnight, James Arthur

1892 The Mines of Montana: Their History and Development to Date. Prepared for the National Mining Congress Held at Helena, July 12, 1892. C. K. Wells Co., Helena.

Robertson, Almon F.

1951 Mines and Mineral Deposits (Except Fuels), Cascade County, Mont. Information Circular 7589. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.

Robertson, Almon F., and Robert N. Roby

1951 Mines and Mineral Deposits (Except Fuels), Judith Basin County, Mont. Information Circular 7602. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.

Sahinen, Uuno Mathias

1935 Mining Districts of Montana. Unpublished Master's thesis, Department of Geology, Montana School of Mines, Butte.

Shoemaker, C. S.

1894 Fifth Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana, Intermountain Publishing Company, Butte.

Sommer, Barbara

1991 Cultural Resource Inventory and Assessment of the Barker/Hughesville Mining District. Prepared by GCM Services, Inc. for Chen-Northern, under contract with the Montana Department of State Lands.

Spiroff, Kiril

1938 "Geological Observations of the Block P Mine, Hughesville, Montana", Econ. Geology, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 554-567.

Swallow, G. C. and J. B. Trevarthen

1890 Reports of the Inspector of Mines and Deputy Inspector of Mines for the Six Months Ending November 30th, 1889. Journal Publishing Company, Helena. Swallow, G. C., J. B. Trevarthen and Jacob Oliver 1891 Reports of Inspectors of Mines, State of Montana, year ending November 30th, 1890. Journal Publishing Company, Helena.

Trevarthen, J. B., and G. C. Swallow

1889 Reports of the Inspector of Mines and Deputy Inspector of Mines.

Vanderburg, William D.

1931 "Mining Methods at the Block P Mine of the St. Joseph Lead Co., Hughesville, Montana", U. S. Bureau of Mines, Inf. Circ. 6416, pp. 1-14.

Walsh, William, and William Orem

1912 Biennial Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana.

Weed, Walter Harvey

1899 "Montana Iron Ores", U. S. Geological Survey, 20th Annual Report, Pt. 6. pp. 55-59.

1900 Geology of the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. Twentieth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey. Part III. Precious-Metal Mining Districts. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

1900 "The Enrichment of Gold and Silver Veins", American Institute of Mining and Engineering Transcripts, Vol. 30, pp. 434-448.

1902 "Influence of Country Rock on Mineral Veins", American Institute of Mining Engineering Transactions, Vol. 31, pp. 634-653.

Western Mining World

1898 Barker District - Judith Basin County. Western Mining World, 9(203):69. Typed copy on file, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology office.

Wolle, Muriel Sibell

1963 Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camps of the Treasure State. Sage Books, Denver.

Work Projects Administration (WPA), Mineral Resources Survey

1940 Directory of Montana Mining Properties. Memoir No. 20. Montana School of Mines, Butte.

1941 Montana Mine Index, and Alphabetical Index Arranged by Counties, Districts and Mines of Information on Montana Mines from 1867-1940. Montana School of Mines, Butte.