HISTORIC CONTEXT

aka Coolidge

aka Wise River

The Elkhorn mining district is located in the Pioneer Mountains northwest of Comet Mountain at the headwaters and on the divide of Wise River and Grasshopper Creek. The central group of claims is at an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 feet above sea level about four miles northeast of Elkhorn Hot Springs on the west side of the East Fork of Wise River. A decade after the first gold strikes in southwestern Montana, a number of mining districts in the Pioneer range became major silver producers, but Elkhorn with all its activity and notoriety was not among them.

The geology of the Elkhorn district is taken primarily from Winchell (1914:168-159) who describes the country rock of the Elkhorn district as a porphrytic quartz monzonite with euhedral plagioclase, quartz, biotite, horneblende, magnetite, apatite, and pyrite. The Elkhorn district monzonite covers a large portion of the south end of the Pioneer range, extending south about eight miles to the Polaris mine, southwest about four miles to Grasshopper Creek and north and east to Hecla. In general the ores of this district are of low grade, but the veins are large.

Within the Elkhorn district the monzonite is penetrated by dikes of aplite and pegmatite and also by fissure veins containing copper ores in a quartzose gangue. In the southwestern part of the district the monzonite is intersected by narrow seams of quartz with pyrite carrying a little silver and copper. The veins contain chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and chalcocite films on pyrite. In the oxide zones, the copper minerals include malachite, azurite, and native copper. Fissure veins in the central portion contain pyrite and chalcopyrite. Sooty copper glance is formed at water level at a depth of 150 to 250 feet. Also present are veins along aplitic intrusions containing argentiferous galena and tetrahedrite with bornite.

EARLY SILVER MINING

The first discovery of silver ore in the Elkhorn district was made by Preston Sheldon in 1872. He shipped a carload of the ore, assaying 300 ounces of silver to the ton, from a claim called the Old Elkhorn, located about a mile southwest of later Coolidge/Elkhorn townsite and mine. In 1874, Mike T. Steele located the Storm claim -- adjacent to the west side of the Old Elkhorn claim -- and shipped two carloads of ore, assaying 260 ounces of silver to the ton. Next to be discovered was the Mono lode which was located by Clark Smith in September of 1875. By 1885 D. B. Mason and Steele acquired the claim and sank a 35-foot shaft. In 1888, the Storm Mining Company sank a 90-foot shaft on the Mono vein, and eventually the shaft would reach a depth of 250 feet (Winchell 1914; Sassman 1933; Geach 1972).

Other mines in the district were operated by the Magnet Company in 1887 on Bailey Mountain. The Dillon Examiner reported on January 27, 1892 that a number of mines were producing, including the Critic, Fraction, Navajo, Good Enough, Park, Red Sky, Hamburg, Washington, Guy, Last Chance, Cleopatra, Mascott [sic], and Cleveland. A 10-stamp mill had been built at the Critic and Fraction mines. In 1895, Frank Williams shipped ore from the Simpson claim, located southwest of the Old Elkhorn claim (Sassman 1933).

Mining operations were severely restricted throughout southwestern Montana by the lack of economical transportation prior to 1882. In order to be smelted, the ore had to be hauled by wagon to Corinne, Utah and then sent by railroad to San Francisco and from there by ship to Swansea, Wales where the smelters were located. Obviously only high-grade ore could be sent on this long, circuitous route to the smelters. In spite of this serious handicap, a number of mines in the district did manage to operate profitably on a small scale during the 1870s. In the 1880s more mines went into operation following the completion of the Utah and Northern railroad to Silver Bow in December of 1881. In 1893, however, silver prices crashed and all the mining operations throughout the district closed down for the next decade, except for a small amount of prospecting work (Winchell 1914; Sassman 1933; Geach 1972).

W. R. ALLEN AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELKHORN LODE

In the twentieth century, virtually all mining activity in the district was centered on the Elkhorn lode. The massive operation to develop the lode would turn out to be one of Montana's last and largest silver mining ventures. The development, operation and ultimate failure of the Elkhorn project is illustrative of the lures and pitfalls of many similar large-scale mining operations which have come and gone in Montana during the past century.

The Elkhorn lode was located by Mike T. Steele and F. W. Pahnish on October 24, 1873. A partnership was formed with Con Bray and Judge Meade and enough money was raised to build a small mill on the site. For the next two decades, small amounts of high-grade ore were mined and shipped to Swansea for smelting. In 1893, the Elkhorn shut down, along with the district's other mines, after the disastrous drop in silver prices that year. By 1903, silver prices had recovered to a point where it seemed feasible to revive the Elkhorn mine. Tom Judge found a rich vein of silver ore while doing prospecting work on the Elkhorn Ledge. This generated some interest to reopen the mine, but there was not sufficient financing to get the project underway. In 1906, Frank Felt bought a number of claims in the district and, along with M. L. McDonald and Donald B. Gillies, started a tunnel on the Idanha vein which eventually would become the major producing mine for the Elkhorn group. Two years later, in 1909, the tunnel would be further developed by the Park Mining Company which extended it to 748 feet (Sassman 1941; Wirtz and Lovell 1976).

Large-scale development of the Elkhorn lode got underway in 1911. William R. Allen, former lieutenant governor of Montana turned mining entrepreneur, became interested in the property and devoted his efforts to developing the Elkhorn mines on a scale which dwarfed anything attempted in the area before or since. Allen would be inextricably linked with the fortunes of the Elkhorn mine for the next 40 years. Although many others were involved in the development of the Elkhorn mine, Allen was the chief promoter and prime mover of the project from beginning to end. His personal career and fortune would be mirrored in the development and ultimate failure of the Elkhorn mine project.

Allen was born in July 1871 in the small mining area south of Anaconda, Montana, known as French Gulch. He was educated in Deer Lodge County schools and then attended the Helena Business College. After graduating with honors from the college in 1891, he was hired by Marcus Daly to manage the Anaconda Company's electric light, sheet metal, railway and water works department. He also managed the Daly's lumber business, which was one of the major components of Daly's development of the Anaconda smelter complex. In addition, Allen maintained an interest in a number of mining claims his father had developed in the Anaconda area. Married twice, in 1893 and, following the death of his first wife, again in 1917, he raised seven children (Allen Papers 1903-1953; Patterson 1989).

Allen, a Republican, entered politics and was elected to the Montana House of Representatives in 1902 and served in the legislature until 1908 when he was elected lieutenant governor under Governor Edwin L. Norris. Although it seemed that Allen had a promising future in politics, he resigned as lieutenant governor in 1913 in order to devote all his efforts to the Elkhorn project. He demonstrated a talent for financial promotion and was able to interest financiers in London and Boston in the venture. He helped form the Boston-Montana Development Corporation in 1913 and became its president. The company was incorporated with $15,000,000 in capital stock. Allen spent $474,000 of his own funds to purchase the principal mining claims, including the Elkhorn, Blue-Eyed Annie, Park, Idanha, Central, Aspen, Red Top, Mono, Boston, Crotto, Homestake, Washington, and Blue Jay, which he then sold to the new corporation. In 1918, he reported to the stockholders that exploration work in the area justified buying additional mining claims adjacent to the Elkhorn properties and soon ac quired the Mono, New Year, Thomas Paine, Montreal, Mary, Humboldt, Dell, Climax, Homestake, Modoc, Black Jack, Hazel, Ajack, Atlas, Washington, Ram, Evolution, Ucon, Robert Ingersoll, Robert Ingersoll #2, Jessie, Lincoln, and Bonanza. Eventually the corporation would acquire some 80 mining claims, covering 1600 acres. The claim acquisition was part of a deliberate policy to avoid the type of situation like that which had once existed in Butte where conflicting adjoining claims led to endless litigation (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946, Boston-Montana Development Company 1918; BLM Plat map 5828).

THE MONTANA SOUTHERN RAILROAD AND MINE AND MILL DEVELOPMENT

Allen also formed the Boston-Montana Milling and Power Company to develop the mine and mill while another subsidiary - the Butte and Pacific Railway Company - was formed to construct a railroad line from the town of Divide on the Big Hole River to the mine (Sassman 1941; Geach 1972; Wirtz and Lovell 1976; Allen Papers 1903-1953).

At that time, extensive exploration work had already been underway on the 68 claims (only nine were actually patented) held by the Boston-Montana Development Corporation. Most of the major ore veins of the Elkhorn district crossed this group of claims. Of these veins the Blue Jay had the highest grade of ore (Geach 1972), while the Idanha, located just above the Elkhorn mill, would become the company's greatest producer had the greatest amount of ore. Three tunnels had been driven on the Grotto claim, a 600-foot tunnel was run on a vein at the Aspen, two shafts were sunk on the Blue-Eyed Annie and shafts and tunnels were found on the Park, Elkhorn, Storm, Red Sky, Homestake, Ruby, Bonanza, Mary, Montreal, and Washington claims. The Idanha had a 900-foot tunnel with a 600-foot cross-cut and a double-track tunnel was started in October 1913 (Sassman 1941; BLM Plat maps 9847A, 9847B, 9964).

A wagon road had been built to the mines but it was obvious that a rail line would be needed. Preliminary work on the route was done in 1914 and heavy machinery for the mines was purchased but the outbreak of World War I delayed financing from the English backers. However, construction work on the railroad finally got underway in May of 1917. The line for the Montana Southern Railroad was run up the Big Hole River from Divide and then up the Wise River to the mines. It was completed by December 1919 and was reported to have been the last narrow-gauge railway built in the United States. The railroad was equipped with three Baldwin locomotives, 28 freight cars, three passenger cars, a machine shop, an engine house and depots at a total cost of $1,500,000 [J. R. Pelt, director of the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, in a letter to Mrs. Fannie Gold on August 9, 1954, put the figure considerably higher at $2,100,000] (Sassman 1941; Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology files on Montana mining properties; Wirtz and Lovell 1976).

With completion of the railroad, heavy equipment and materials for the mill could be transported to the mine site. Work on the mill was begun immediately and the construction of a 65,000-volt power line from Divide to the mine and Coolidge was begun. About $900,000 was spent on the construction of the mill, while another $150,000 was spent on the power line. Completed in 1922, it was the largest mill in Montana. It was equipped with steam heat, a sprinkler system, a 2500 cubic-foot air compressor, two crushers, two ball-mills, four classifiers, 16 concentrating tables, two settling tanks, two thickener tanks, a large filter and 52 electric motors to operate the mill's oil-flotation system designed by O. B. Hoffstrand. The system had the capacity to process 750 tons of ore per day with a recovery rate of 90 to 93 percent (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946; Wirtz and Lovell 1976; Mining Record 1981).

Most of the ore processed by the mill came from the Idanha tunnel at the 300-foot level, which was located at the upper camp, 800 vertical feet above the mill. Ore from the Idanha could be lowered through the No. 1 raise to the lower tunnel at the 1000-foot level where electric locomotives hauled ore cars a quarter mile to the mill. Ore from other shafts and adits at the upper camp was brought to the mill via a rail cable car system that ran down the mountain side from an ore bin at the upper camp to an ore bin a few yards north of the lower mine tunnel portal. The tramway employed a gravity system where loaded cars going down pulled the empty cars back to the top. The tramway had an unusual three rail track, except in the middle where the rails divided so the cars could pass each other. From the ore bin at the bottom, ore was transferred to the lower electric tramway, which hauled it to the mill. No forced-air ventilation system was needed for the mine workings which were adequately ventilated by natural convection currents (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946; Wirtz and Lovell 1976).

Also located at the upper camp was a sawmill, three bunk houses, boarding house, six log cabins, cook house, stables, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, hoist, and an ore sorting house (Evans 1946).

TOWN OF COOLIDGE

Construction of the major portion of the Coolidge mining camp was begun around 1914, at the same time the mines were first extensively developed. Allen named the town after Calvin Coolidge who had become a friend of Allen's while Coolidge was still lieutenant governor of Massachusetts. Coolidge never visited his namesake but there were reports that he had invested in the mine. When work started on the mill in 1919, large number of workers and miners moved into the camp. Initially, many of the miners lived in tents over board platforms. Later, more substantial log or board and tar paper residences were built (Sassman 1941; Wirtz and Lovell 1976; Patterson 1989).

A company store sold equipment to the miners, as well as food and other necessities to the community's residents. Below the store, there was a boarding house where many of the miners ate. For amusement, miners and townspeople could visit the pool hall, run by Elmer Ripley. There were no saloons in town but liquid spirits were said to have been available from a still located near the town. Skiing and sledding were popular pastimes during the winter (Wirtz and Lovell 1976).

Company offices, other boarding houses and bunk houses were also part of the community. The town was equipped with electric power and telephone service although plumbing was rudimentary and few houses or boarding houses had facilities for bathing. Elizabeth Patterson, the daughter of William Allen, who lived in Coolidge as a young girl, said that most of the town's residents went to the mill when they wanted to take a shower. Postmasters Frank H. Tyro and Evan L. Woolman ran the post office for 10 years, from 1922 to 1932, when it was closed for good. A school district was organized in October of 1918 to operate the school for the town's 20 or so school children until the early 1930s when the town's population declined to a point where a school could no longer be supported. Although the town had most of the amenities of other small communities, it did not have any churches. At its peak, Coolidge probably had a population of around 350. Most of the residents of Coolidge came from the local area or were from Butte and Dillon. Elizabeth Patterson and Gilbert Dodgson, who worked at the site, both reported that there were no blacks, Chinese or other distinctive ethnic groups in town (Sassman 1941; Wirtz and Lovell 1976; Patterson 1989; Dodgson 1990).

COMPANY OPERATIONS AND DEMISE 1922 - 1950

An estimated $5,000,000 was spent by the Boston-Montana Development Company in building the Elkhorn mine project. At the start of 1922 it appeared the undertaking was about to fulfill the expectations of Allen and the other investors: the mill was a modern, efficient system ready to process the ores; the mine workings were well equipped and were being developed by experienced miners; the narrow-gauge railway was ready to haul the processed ore; and the high voltage line to power the mines and mill had been completed.

However, before the mill even went into production, serious problems began to appear. The economy had slowed down during the 1920-1921 recession and, to make matters worse, the company's bond and note issues, along with other financial obligations, came due during this same period. These debts and obligations probably could have been met if the mines and mill had been able to go into full production but it was discovered almost as soon as the mill went into production that the veins of ore were not developed enough to supply sufficient ore to keep the mill operating at even half its capacity. A decision was then made to mine low-grade ore as well as high-grade ore but even this move failed to produce adequate ore for the mill. Although 24,000 feet of underground workings were developed by 1925, it was not enough and the depressed economy prevented raising the necessary capital for mine development. Only one section of the mill's two parallel flotation systems was ever used and then only for three months in 1922-1923 and four months in 1925 (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946; Geach 1972; Krohn and Weist 1977).

Within a year after the mill started production, the company was placed under a stockholders receivership. In 1923 Charles S. Murphy, president of the Montana Mine Owner's Association and I. H. Brand of New York City were appointed receivers. The company was eventually able to liquidate its debts but was forced to seriously curtail its underground development program. In spite of this limited development, by 1927 some 120,000 tons of ore were blocked out to be mined, the ore bins were filled with 3,000 tons of ore and six cars of concentrates were ready for shipment from the mill. But then, the final blow in the series of misfortunes experienced by the company occurred in June of that year when a Montana Power Company dam on Pattengail Creek broke, flooding the lower Wise River valley and washing out 12 miles of the Montana Southern Railroad's tracks and several of the line's bridges across the Big Hole River. The line was repaired by 1930 but by then the Great Depression had begun and metal prices had declined to a point where it was not possible for the company to resume production (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946; Geach 1972; Wirtz and Lovell 1976).

The company was reorganized on May 17, 1933 as the National Boston-Montana Mines Corporation. In 1944, it became the Boston Mines Company but it was still unable to revive the operation and by the end of the 1940s most of the company's deeded properties were acquired by Beaverhead County in lieu of taxes. As head of the National Boston-Montana Mines Corporation, William Allen continued for the next two decades to try and revive the Elkhorn mines. Although he lost his personal fortune in the enterprise, he continued to believe that the mines were a potential bonanza until his death in 1953 at his home in Wise River (Sassman 1941; Evans 1946; Geach 1972; Wirtz and Lovell 1976; Patterson 1989).

At their peak, the mine and mill employed 250 men, yet a total of only 26,000 tons of ore was mined from 1921 through 1924. Another 20,000 tons was produced in 1925 but from then on, only a few tons were mined sporadically during the years 1935-1937, 1939, 1942, 1948 and 1953. Total production from the Elkhorn mines was 52,385 tons of ore and from that, 8,900 tons of concentrates were produced for shipment to smelters at Tooele, Utah and East Helena, Montana. The concentrates yielded 851,725 pounds of lead, 4,100 pounds of zinc, 370,799 pounds of copper, 180,843 ounces of silver and 1,013 ounces of gold. In 1949 the company reported the total production of the Elkhorn mines amounted to $375,000. This figure, however, could not begin to match the estimated $5 million that was invested in the project (Sassman 1941; Trauerman and Reyner 1950; Geach 1972; Krohn and Weist 1977).

In 1981, the Elkhorn mines were bought by Timberline Minerals, Inc. who did some exploratory prospecting work on the site for the next three years. They reported that there was good potential for silver, as well as tungsten and molybdenum, but no significant production was reported during this period (Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology files on Montana mining properties).

CONCLUSIONS

The Elkhorn mine project is significant as an example of one of the few large-scale silver mining projects in Montana during the early part of the twentieth century. During this period, most mining operations in the region were small-scale operations which, for the most part, either reopened old mine workings or reworked old mine dumps. With the exception of Butte, where silver production was a by-product of the copper, zinc and manganese mines, the Elkhorn project was almost the only large-scale mining development during the 1920s designed solely for silver production. Even more significant, it is an example of how a project of this magnitude can fail even though it had large-scale investment, systematic development of the mines along with the processing and transportation facilities, use of the most modern equipment and techniques, and the existence of sizeable and proven ore deposits.

Even with these favorable conditions, the odds were against a successful operation. Historically in Montana, for every successful bonanza mine there have been perhaps a dozen mines that failed. The Elkhorn project serves as a case example of the fundamentally risky nature of any mining venture and the propensity for most mining ventures to ultimately fail. An element of luck, either good or bad, can often be a critical factor in the outcome of any mining operation. The 1927 Wise River flood illustrates the effects an unforeseen accidental event can have on an enterprise such as the Elkhorn project.

Ultimately, it was not bad luck that caused the failure of the Elkhorn enterprise, but bad planning. The remote and difficult location of the Elkhorn mines required large investments in the transportation, power and processing facilities but company leaders inexplicably did not adequately plan for the necessary amount of production to cover the costs of development. The large capital outlay for the development of the Elkhorn facilities thus proved to be a serious detriment to the success of the project. The usual sequence has been for a mine to conduct serious development operations and limited production in order to determine the extent and nature of the ore reserves and then to construct the necessary processing/transportation facilities to handle the mine's output. According to Harry J. Evans (1946) this was the original plan of action for development of the Elkhorn project. The intention was to extensively develop the intricate vein system which is characteristic of the Elkhorn area and then build a moderate size plant and proceed gradually with production. However, in 1917 Evans reported a change in management which led to the decision to greatly expand the mill and to build the railroad to the site. These projects, unfortunately, took precedence over development of the underground workings.

This crucial error was realized when the mill went into production. It was immediately obvious that the mines were unable to meet the capacity of the processing facilities. The project was left with a top-heavy capital outlay in equipment and facilities it was unable to finance, even though the veins of ore in the Elkhorn district were extensive and of a high grade. The company's shaky position was then further aggravated by the depressed economic conditions at a time when the company's many note and bond issues were coming due. These factors made it impossible to acquire the necessary capital to finance underground development, just when it was most needed. The company never recovered from this situation. No explanation has been offered for the company's failure to plan for and then develop the needed production from the mines. The company may have concentrated on developing the surface facilities in order to impress potential investors or perhaps the Elkhorn venture was simply a case, all-to-often seen in mining ventures, of wishful thinking getting the upper hand over objective analysis and sound planning. This was, of course, not the first time this had happened to a mining operation. In 1868, J. Ross Browne, in his annual report on the mineral resources of the West noted the high failure rate of western mines and quoted A. K. Eaton who stated that:

...the principal difficulty...has been the imperfect management of these different enterprises. One great error has been made by almost all. It has arisen from the over-sanguine belief that [ore] could be mined in quantity without preliminary expense in development. The mills are erected, the money and patience of the proprietors exhausted, and with untold wealth the machinery is left to rust and rot for want of ore. Today nearly every mill in the Territory could be worked most profitably by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars in the thorough opening of the mines belonging to them (Browne 1868:497).

The collapse of the Elkhorn project, virtually ended mining activity in the Elkhorn district other than some small-scale prospecting and development work. The last major activity in the district occurred during the period from 1960 to 1964 when some of the underground workings on the Comet group of claims on the southwest side of Comet Mountain were reopened. A small amount of ore totaling 773 tons was mined which yielded 4,000 pounds of copper, 1,700 pounds of lead, 300 pounds of zinc, 23,879 ounces of silver and 20 ounces of gold (Geach 1972).

Total production for the entire district from 1902 to 1965 amounted to: 53,373 tons of ore which contained 1,184 ounces of gold, 208,593 ounces of silver, 383,580 pounds of copper, 857,679 pounds of lead and 4,800 pounds of zinc (Geach 1972).

BOUNDARIES OF THE DISTRICT

The Elkhorn district is located between the divide of the Wise River and Grasshopper Creek drainages. The district is essentially defined by Geach (1972:105) as the area that encompasses the Elkhorn mining claims and the site of the Elkhorn mining operations.

SELECTED MINE SITES

The primary operation which dwarfs all other mining features in the Elkhorn District is the Elkhorn mine and mill and the associated community of Coolidge. Although the lower mill was torn down for salvage [the 18-inch wood beams were reported to have been used to construct a restaurant in Idaho Falls] and the remaining upper section of the mill is proposed for demolition by its private owner, the other remains are of interest as a historical site and administered by the Beaverhead National Forest. Many of the mine buildings are standing, primarily at the upper mine, and the other remaining features are sufficiently intact to allow a good understanding of the mining and milling operations. Coolidge and the mine area contains the remains of over 100 features and structures ranging from depressions to standing structures.

Two other mine sites in the area are discussed below as examples of minor prospecting exploration activities.

Gar

The Gar mine appears to have operated in the 1880s with possible additional mining activity in the post-World War II era. The Gar mine is on the Magnet lode which was first located by George W. Irvin on February 8, 1886. Irvin subsequently patented the claim on January 11, 1888, (Pat. #22502 - Mineral Survey Records #2199). When the claim was patented, improvements amounted to a discovery shaft, two tunnels and a building valued at $2,457. Sassman (1941:255) reported that in 1887, the Magnet Company operated the Magnet group of mines on Bailey Mountain. The claims were developed and some high-grade silver ore was shipped but, in spite of this promising beginning, there is no record of any significant production from the Gar mine at a later date (Sassman 1941; GLORecords).

Magna

The Magna mine is on the San Francisco Lode claim which was located on July 2, 1887. The claim was patented (Pat. #27765 - Mineral Survey Records #3353) by the Great Northern Mining Company on August 3, 1895. At this time the mine had been developed through a discovery tunnel which had a raise and winze. A second tunnel was sunk on the east side of the claim. Surface facilities consisted of an ore house, cabin and blacksmith shop. Total value of the improvements were put at $3,570. Sassman (1941:255) reported that the Magnet Company in 1887 operated some mines on Bailey Mountain, including the San Francisco which may have been an early name for the Magna. The claims were developed and some high-grade silver ore was shipped but, in spite of this promising beginning, there is no record of any significant production from the Magna mine at a later date (Sassman 1941; GLO Mineral Survey Records).

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1919 Directory: Montana Metal and Coal Mines. University of Montana Bulletin No. 2. State School of Mines, Butte.

Newspaper Editors of Montana (compiled by)

1914

A Newspaper Reference Work: Men of Affairs and Representative Institutions of Montana, 1914

. Butte.

Patterson, Elizabeth

1989 & 1990 Personal communication. November 2 and 10, 1989; March 15, 1990, Butte, Montana.

Raymond, Rossiter W.

1877

Statistics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains being the Eighth Annual Report of Rossiter W. Raymond, United States Commissioner of Mining Statistics

. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Sassman, Oren

1941

Metal Mining in Historic Beaverhead

. Unpublished thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman.

Shoemaker, C. S.

1893

Fourth Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana

. Intermountain Publishing Company, Butte.

1894 Fifth Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana. Intermountain Publishing Company, Butte.

Shoemaker, C. S., and John Miles

1895

Sixth Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana

. Intermountain Publishing Company, Butte.

1896 Seventh Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana. State Publishing Company, Helena.

Stevens, H. J. (ed.)

1906

The Copper Handbook

(Vol. 6). Houghton, Michigan.

Stuart, Granville (edited by Paul Phillips)

1925

Prospecting for Gold from Dogtown to Virginia City: 1852-1864

. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Swallow, G. C., J. B. Trevarthen, and Jacob Olives

1891

Reports of the Inspectors of Mines, State of Montana, Year Ending November 30th, 1890

. Journal Publishing Company, Helena.

Toole, K. Ross

1959

Montana: An Uncommon Land

. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Trauerman, Carl J. (Supervisor)

1940 Directory of Montana Mining Properties.

Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Memoir No. 20

. (Compiled by Work Projects Administration Mineral Resources Survey). Montana School of Mines, Butte.

1942 Directory of Montana Mining Properties (1940). Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Supplement to Memoir No. 20. Montana School of Mines, Butte.

Trauerman, Carl J. and Millard L. Reyner

1950 Directory of Montana Mining Properties: 1949.

Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Memoir No. 31

. Montana School of Mines, Butte.

United State Department of Agriculture - Forest Service

1977a Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, Land Management Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

United State Department of Agriculture - Forest Service

1977b Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, Land Management Plan, Environmental Statement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

United States Department of Interior

n.d. Bureau of Land Management, Mineral Survey Records, Butte, Montana.

United States Geological Survey

1871

Mineral Resources of the United States, 1871

. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1872 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1872. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1873 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1873. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1875 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1875. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

United States Geological Survey 1908

Mineral Resources of the United States, 1908

. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1909 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1909. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1911 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1911. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1912 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1913 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1913. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1917 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1917. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1928 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1928. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1929 Mineral Resources of the United States, 1929. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1938 Minerals Year Book, 1938. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1939 Minerals Year Book, 1939. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1940 Minerals Year Book, 1940. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Winchell, Alexander N.

1914 Mining Districts of the Dillon Quadrangle, Montana and Adjacent Areas.

United States Geological Survey Bulletin 674

. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Wirtz, Shirley and Lorene Lovell

1976

One Man's Dream: Elkhorn Mine - Coolidge, Montana

. Ashton Printing, Butte.

Wolle, Muriel Sibell

1963

Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camps of the Treasure State

. Sage Books, Denver.

Young, Jr., Otis E

1970

Western Mining

. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.