aka Twin Bridges (sub-district)
aka Dry Boulder Creek (sub-district) aka Bear Gulch (sub-district) aka Goodrich Gulch (sub-district) aka Dry and Wet Georgia Gulches (sub-district)
The Tidal Wave district is located on the northwestern slopes of the Tobacco Root range and was initially prospected as early as 1864, yet not developed for many years. The district was named after the first patented mine which was located on the ridge north of Dry Georgia Gulch. Initial activity concentrated on the rich float and high-grade outcroppings where gold was naturally concentrated. Production was very small; chunks of ore were hand-mortared and panned. Larger amounts were hauled to an arrastra for reduction. Some small-scale placers were also tried in Goodrich Gulch above the forks in the creek (Johns 1961).
Because unweathered ore did not contain free gold, many of the mines were considered of little value. Howver, on some of the claims when the weathered surface ores ran out the mines were extended deeper. Mining declined in the district throughout the 1870s and 1880s. However, after the success of the mines of Argenta and later Hecla in the 1870s, interest began turning to argentiferous lead ores (Sahinen 1935; Wolle 1963).
The new milling techniques and new local railroad connections brought renewed interest in the area. In the middle 1880s, large veins of argentiferous galena were opened between Ramshorn and Georgia Gulches. In 1880, William Owsley worked several lead properties at the junction of Little Bear and Bear Gulches and erected a small smelter to extract the lead and gold from his mines' ore. These mines were successfully worked on a small scale by their owners or lessees as late as 1914. Later, properties on Smelter Mountain of Bear Gulch were acquired by the Tobacco Root Mining, Milling and Smelting Company and claims at the head of Bear Gulch were operated by Bielenberg and Higgins. Bielenberg and Higgins utilized arrastras, stamp mills and cyanide plants to work their ore. The Prichett mine concentrated its ore in a small 5-stamp mill and a small cyanide plant at the mouth of Little Bear Creek. It was run for six months in 1909 (Winchell 1914; Sahinen 1935; Johns 1961; Wolle 1963).
Available production records for the district date back only to 1904. The production prior to 1904 probably equaled if not exceeded the production until 1935. From 1904 to 1930 production equaled $361,218 in gold, 133,390 ounces of silver, 141, 969 pounds of copper, 2,263,730 pounds of lead, and 21,887 pounds of zinc, valued in all at $618,689. By 1944 the district's total production had increased to 51,088 tons of ore worth $1,210,000 (Winchell 1914; Sahinen 1935; Wolle 1963).
The geology in the Twin Bridges area is more complex than any other region in the Tobacco Root area. The oldest rocks of the region are gneisses and schists of the Pony series (pre-Beltian), which are overlain by extensive areas of Paleozoic quartzites, limestones, and shales. All are cut by irregular stocks of granitic rock, outliers of the Tobacco Root batholith that underlies extensive areas to the east of the district. The sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are complexly folded and the structure is further complicated by strong faulting (Tansley et al. 1933; Sahinen 1935).
Ores in the district occur in three types. Around Bear Gulch granitic intrusives came in contact with limestone and produced typical contact deposits containing copper and lead with gold and silver values. At the head of Bear Gulch and to some extent in the rest of the district, vein deposits in gneiss or schist are closely associated with granitic magma intrusions. The veins carry gold with some lead, silver and copper. The third type of ore is found in Dry and Wet Georgia Creeks and Goodrich Gulch. These vein deposits in gneiss or schists are associated with igneous intrusions not associated with granitic magma and are of an earlier age.
The increase in gold prices during the Great Depression once again brought interest in the district with leasing being the preferred route of mine operation. The High Ridge, Bryzant, Richmond Group, Carolina, and Crystal Lake were active during this period. After the closure of gold mines during World War II, the district has seen only sporadic activity (Johns 1961).
The primary mines of the district are Bielenger and Higgins (Inspiration), Smelter Mountain group, Giant, Copper King, Little Bear, Grouse, Crystal Lake, Eleanora, Sunbeam, Sunflower, High Ridge, Empire State, Deutschland, Corncracker, and Strawn.
Other mines in the district include the Eureka, Moffat, and Ohio Lode, (Karsmizki 1992).
Dry Boulder Creek Sub-district
Dry Boulder Creek is the northern part of the Tidal Wave district. The creek's mouth is about eight miles northeast of Twin Bridges and about five miles southeast of Silver Star. The most important mine in the area is the Copper Queen property. In this mine copper ores occur in irregular contact deposits in limestone. The chief ores are malachite and azurite.
Bear Gulch Sub-district
Bear Gulch is on the northern side of the Tidal Wave district. The mouth of the gulch is seven miles northeast of Twin Bridges and about five miles east-southeast of Iron Rod. The most developed claims in the gulch are the Johnston-Moffet group. This mine worked various oxides and carbonates of copper. In 1914 the mine was described as having a 200 foot shaft, and two long adits. At the head of Bear Gulch, the Pritchett mine worked contacts with aplite dikes and faulted veins. The mine had a small mill on the property, but hauled high grade ore and concentrates to the railroad at Twin Bridges and thence to smelters. The Royal Bear, Aurora and Peter claims adjoin the Pritchett on the south. To the west are the Blue Jay and Jay Gould. In Little Bear Gulch were located the Giant, Grouse, Little Bear and the Copper King. These mines worked a porphyritic syenite sill at the contact with the Meagher formation and small irregular replacement bodies of argentiferous galena in the Meagher formation (Winchell 1914; Johns 1961).
Ores from the Bear Gulch mines were processed in a mill built at the mouth of Little Bear Gulch which is the main tributary of Bear Gulch. Erected in the spring of 1909, the plant treated ores with a cyanide process. After about six months the mill closed (Winchell 1914).
Goodrich Gulch Sub-district
Goodrich Gulch opens to the Jefferson Valley about five miles east-northeast of Twin Bridges. The Schmidt property and the Red Bell claim are the principal mines in the district. Below the Red Bell claim a group comprising the Carolina, Topeka, Little Goldie, and Nettie were active in 1914. Between 1900 and 1920 the main mines were the Richmond Group, the Crystal Lake and Schmidt property and the Carolina mine. These three mines were once again active during the 1930s. The mines in this district are in limestones and have low-grade sulphides at depth (Winchell 1914).
Dry and Wet Georgia Gulches Sub-district
The two gulches in this district are located four and five miles due east of Twin Bridges. The gulches were the scene of the first mining in the Tidal Wave district. The Tidal Wave mine, on the ridge between Dry Georgia and Goodrich gulches, was first located in the 1860s. The Highridge (or High Ridge) mine on the southwest side of the mountains between Dry and Wet Georgia gulches was active in the 1880s and was a steady producer from the 1890s to 1910s. In the Buckeye group in Dry Georgia Gulch gold ore occurs in gneiss just below its contact with limestone. Other mines in the sub-district active around 1914 include the Democrat, the Empire and Bay State, Keynote, Ella and Argenta. The most important producers in the Dry Georgia Gulch from 1900 to 1920 include the High Ridge, the Sunflower, and the Corncracker. In Wet Georgia Gulch the most important mines in the first two decades of the Twentieth century include the Ella, Dullea, Lone Star and Argenta. The High Ridge was once again prominent in the 1930s (Winchell 1914; Johns 1961).
The importance of mining to the Twin Bridges area was recognized in 1898 when a group of promoters from Butte and surrounding areas representing the Montana Smelting Company built the Montana Mining and Smelter Company smelter east of the community near the gravel pit and cemetery. The plant had a capacity of 30 tons per day. All of the machinery was from the Anaconda Copper Company and the Anaconda Iron Works. The plant operated a few months, was sold to another company, operated for a time, and was then closed down. The machinery was later salvaged. It never produced the profits which had been expected (Madison County Historic Association 1976; Gray 1992a).
BOUNDARIES OF THE DISTRICT
Winchell (1914) declares that the Tidal Wave district is one of the largest mining districts in the region. He placed it seven miles north and south and about five miles east and west of Twin Bridges. The district contains the entire length of Dry Georgia Gulch and a half a dozen other gulches on the western slope of the Tobacco Root Mountains. These gulches include Dry Boulder Creek, Coal Creek, Bear Gulch and Goodrich Creek.
Sahinen (1935) places the district in the northwestern part of Tobacco Root Range. It extends from Wet Georgia Gulch on the south to Belle (Beall) Canyon on the north. This definition is also used by Tansley (1933 and 1937).
HISTORIES OF SELECTED MINES
Bielenberg and Higgins
The Bielenberg and Higgins mine, also known as the B & H mine, reported production in the late 1910s and again in the 1930s. The B & H was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1918. It was part of the Pete and Joe operation and is discussed below (WPA 1940).
This mine was formerly named the Deutschland and is discussed under that name.
The Carolina mine is located in SW section 23 in Goodrich Gulch about two miles below the Red Bell mine. The mine is about 800 feet above the creek on the south slope of the canyon. The claim is one of the earliest in the sub-district. It is part of a group that includes the Topeka, Little Goldie and Nettie. In 1897 the mine was owned and operated by Hoffman and Chisholm; C. H. Hoffman manager. The mine employed six miners and two topmen. The number one tunnel was listed at 250 feet, and the No. 2 tunnel at 365 feet. The gold ore was sent to East Helena for treatment (Byrne and Hunter 1898).
The mine reported intermittent production from 1906 to 1913 and again from 1934 to 1940. From 1933 to 1938 a Mr. Banatz leased the mine and from 1939 to 1940 the mine was leased by J. Reid. The property was developed by a inclined shaft 125 feet deep, a 760 foot adit and numerous smaller adits. The tunnel, in slate and quartzite, cuts at least two veins at 400 feet and 700 feet. The ores from the mine contain auriferous pyrite, native gold, iron oxides and quartz. Reid concentrated the sulphide ores that he mined in the Crystal Lake Mill (Winchell 1914; WPA 1940; Johns 1961).
The Copper King mine is located in Little Bear Creek near Smelter Mountain (Johns 1931).
The Corncracker mine, located in Dry Georgia Gulch at an elevation of 6,000 feet, is about 2,000 feet from the High Ridge property. The mine is unique for the district in that hypogen alteration played an important role in the concentration of mineral values. The mine was developed from two adits in a strong fissured zone of gneiss. Commercial ore was extracted from a zone 300 foot long on one vein. The mine reported intermittent production in the early 1920s but managed sustained production each year between 1926 and 1931. Total production by the early 1930s was listed at $30,000. The mine produced only intermittently after that time. The Corncracker was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1935. The mine is in Pony gneiss with bands of auriferous pyrite several inches wide. From 1921 to 1935 the mine reported gross production of $30,000 consisting of 2,419 ounces of gold and 1,899 ounces of silver from 1,133 tons of ore. From 1944 to 1950 the mine produced about 450 tons of ore (Hart 1933; Tansley et al. 1937; WPA 1940; Johns 1961).
The Crystal Lake property is located on the south fork of Goodrich Gulch about half a mile south of the Carolina mine. The mine includes the Goldie which was later renamed the Sunbeam, and the Elenora claims. The Goldie was found by O. Anderson and sold to a group who mined a considerable amount out of the Blacksmith adit on the claim. The mine was one of the important mines in the district between 1900 and 1920. Prior to 1920 the mine was reported to have produced $200,000 in ore. In the early 1920s the mine was acquired by E. Pulver and associates who formed the Crystal Lake Mining Company (Tansley et al. 1933; Johns 1961).
Above ground the mine was developed with housing for a crew of 50, and a tramway to a newly constructed mill in Goodrich Gulch; the mill was in operation for only one month. Below ground the mine was developed through the Blacksmith adit on the Goldie claim and the Elenora adit on the Elenora claim. The Blacksmith adit worked a 2 to 3 inch vein that contained native gold and crystalline gold-bearing galena. The Elenora mine worked a 2 foot wide vein of finely crystalline gold-bearing galena and auriferous pyrite (Johns 1961).
The operation was later associated with the Schmidt properties. With the increase in gold prices during the Great Depression, the mine again became an active producer (Johns 1961).
Although the original locator of the Deutschland Lode and its original name are not known, the mine was relocated February 5, 1917 by Samuel J. Hagenberger et al. Mineral survey #10028 listed a discovery shaft with a drift, three more shafts and two cuts. The Lode was surveyed January 30 - February 19, 1917 by Edgar J. Strasburger.
The Deutschland lode, while never a significant producer of minerals, has a peculiar place in the broad patterns of history as a reflection of the political climate in the days prior to World War I. It seems likely that Mr. Hagenberger along with surveyor Strasburger took the opportunity of the relocation of the lode to express their strong nationalistic feelings by naming the mine after their "Fatherland". The date and name are highly significant since the United States of America declared war on "Deutschland" a month and a half later on April 6, 1917. Had the same mine been claimed a year later, the owners would have almost guaranteed themselves stiff prison sentences. It is ironic that the survey was rubber stamped by the U.S. Surveyor General's Office on April 14th, eight days after the nation had gone to war.
The first noted production of lead ore at the Deutschland mine occurred in 1923. In each of the following three years, lead ore was again shipped. The early lead oxide ore gave way to sulphides in 1926 when 2 cars of the more complex ore were sent to the smelter; another car of sulphides was shipped in 1928. By 1930, only limited development work was done on the mine (WPA 1940).
In 1933, Wilfred Tansley described the mine as a 1,000 feet of cuts, tunnels and shafts. One ore shoot 100 feet long and 3 feet wide was mined by an incline shaft. At the mine he observed quartz with bands of galena and small amounts of pyrite and sphalerite. All of the higher grades of ore were above the 50 foot level, although there was some millable ore below. Shipments from the mine contained 40-50% lead, 2-4% zinc and 1.8 ounces of silver per ton. There was no measurable amount of gold (Tansley et al. 1933; Gray 1992b).
The mine shipped 38 tons of ore in 1945 under the name of the Bryzant mine (Johns 1961).
The Ella mine is located near the head of Wet Georgia Gulch. The mine is in gneiss about 500 feet below its contact with limestone. In the claim an andesite dike about 100 feet wide is associated with quartz veins that carry lead and silver with some gold values. The mine reported intermittent production from 1909 to 1940 with sustained production in the period from 1916 to 1931. The Ella was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1931. The mine was again active in the late 1950s (Winchell 1914; WPA 1940).
Elenora or Eleanorea
The Elenora mine is located on the south fork of Goodrich Gulch. The mine reported intermittent production in the late 1910s and again in the 1930s. The mine was worked in conjunction with the Goldie Claim by the Crystal Lake Mining Company in the early 1920s. The mine was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1908 and 1909 (WPA 1940).
The Empire and Bay State property in Wet Georgia Gulch is located on a flat fissure vein in gneiss about 500 feet below the contact of limestone. The property was developed by two tunnels from which lessees extracted ore with gold, silver, lead and some zinc values (Winchell 1914; Tansley, Schafer and Hart 1933).
The Higgins mine is part of a group of mine discussed below in the Pete and Joe mine.
High Ridge Mine
The High Ridge mine, located in Dry Georgia Gulch, was one of the first two mines to be patented in the Tidal Wave district. The complex of claims included the Sunflower, Jennie and Spokane. A galena outcrop was reported to have been located by O. Anderson sometime prior to 1880. In the early 1880s, the mine was operated by Dahler and Elling. The High Ridge Mine was first developed late in 1896 by Evans and Pollinger. Three years later, under a lease to Robert Buel, the mine was reported to have shipped four tons to be smelted. The property had recorded production in 1916, 1917, and intermittently between 1922 and 1940. Prior to 1937 the property was leased by Mr. Ellis of Twin Bridges. From 1938 to 1943 the mine was owned and operated by J. C. Roberts and J. Reid and produced $200,000. While the mine claims were owned by Jas. C. Roberts, they were surveyed for patent August 20 - September 5, 1941. In 1944 the mine was leased to B. Brant of Silver Star; from 1944 to 1950 the mine produced about 500 tons of ore (Lorain 1937; WPA 1940; Johns 1961; Gray 1992c).
The mine is developed by four adits, an intermediate level and several cuts and pits (Johns 1961).
This claim is located in Little Bear Gulch near the base of Smelter Mountain. The mine reported jasper ore containing fine gold (Hart 1933; Johns 1961).
Located in Bear Gulch about eight miles north of Twin Bridges, the Johnston-Moffet group of claims extended from the gulch over the ridge to the north. It was claimed some time after 1900. In 1916 a 638 ton shipment of ore was sent to East Helena. The ore averaged 2.32% copper, .39 ounces of silver per ton and .018 ounces of gold per ton. Another shipment from the Mountain View shaft and from various cuts and trenches on the Stella claim returned slightly higher values. The 200 foot shaft on the Mountain View claim was near the top of the ridge on the south slope of Coal Canyon. A 2,400 foot long tunnel was excavated on the south side of the ridge north of Bear Gulch. This tunnel extended to a point below the Moffet tunnel which enters the ridge from the north side. The long tunnel was in granite for the first 1,400 feet, then passes into limestone. The Moffet tunnel was excavated 230 feet southward on the Quincy claim. The adit struck a limestone / granite contact and a contact drift was extended about 100 feet. In 1961 the property consisted of 15 patented claims with an area of 143 acres (Winchell 1914; Johns 1961).
The Keynote mine is located in Wet Georgia Gulch. The mine was in gneiss about 1,000 feet below the contact with limestone. One vein in the mine is closely associated with a pegmatite dice rich in orthoclase. Ore from this vein contained values primarily in gold and silver. Another vein contained chiefly lead and silver with some gold values. The mine reported intermittent production from 1906 to 1940. The mine was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1909 (Winchell 1914; WPA 1940).
The Kreuger mine is located in Dry Gulch and is composed of the patented Edwin Forest claim and two other unpatented claims. Prior to 1931 the mine was leased by Homer Hunt. After 1931 Otto Krueger acquired the ground. The Krueger mine was developed by an adit and a shaft. A winze was located 100 feet from the adit portal. The shaft is 650 feet northeast and descends to 150 feet in argentiferous galena with some gold values. The mine produced about eight carloads of ore that returned about $18 to $20.00 per ton (Johns 1961).
Nearby several small adits on the north slope of Dry Gulch were developed, but no ore produced (Johns 1961).
The Little Bear mine is located in Little Bear Gulch near Smelter Mountain (Johns 1961).
The Little Goldie mine reported intermittent production from 1906 to 193. The mine was also mentioned in the mining literature in 1914 and 1931. (WPA 1940).
The Lottie mine is located in NW section 23 in the north fork of Goodrich Gulch across from the Humming Bird claim of Richmond Group. The property consisted of two claims on a quartz vein that had native gold and silver. The mine reported intermittent production from 1909 and 1940. It was relocated in 1956. The mine was developed by a 250 adit with crosscuts and considerable drifting on the vein. No production records have been located, but it has been estimated that as many as 50 carloads of ore could have been taken out of the drifts. Surface improvements include a shop, compressor house and ore bin (WPA 1940; Johns 1931).
The Mountain View property is located in Bear Gulch about eight miles north of Twin Bridges. In 1902 the mine was owned by J. C. and Alex Johnston. The mine was developed out of a 260 foot shaft. At the bottom a drift was extended on the vein and good ore was encountered. A adit was then driven to reach greater depths. In 1902 the adit had reached 1,450 feet and was expected to strike the vein at 1,600 feet (Byrne and Barry 1902).
Later the claim was the site of the principal development of the Johnston-Moffet properties. The mine produced oxide and carbonate copper ores. It reported production from 1912 to 1916 and again from 1934 to 1939. In 1937 the mine was operated by lease by Ray Mackinson of Butte. In the 1930s development on the surface included a one-drill compressor driven by an old automobile engine, an inclined surface tramway several hundred feet long and ore bunkers at the end of the tramway and above a truck road (Tansley 1937; WPA 1940).
Pete and Joe
The Pete and Joe mine, which is part of the Bielenberg and Higgins properties, is at the head of Bear Creek at an elevation of 8,400 feet on the west slope of A. P. A. Mountain. The mine benefitted from surficial enrichment of ores. Primary ores are auriferous pyrite in quartz (Tansley et al. 1933).
Original production came from the 8,900 foot B & H tunnel. A winze near the portal worked an east - west vein. About 800 feet from the portal the B & H adit struck the Pete and Joe vein. On the opposite side of the ridge from the B & H are the upper tunnels, known as the Pete and Joe workings. These tunnels are connected with each other and with the B & H. An incline shaft sunk on the Pete and Joe vein developed two levels below the main B & H tunnel.
The B & H and Pete and Joe mines reported production from 1920 to 1935. In 1926 the mine was reported to be in development by the Mohave Mining Co. In 1935 the Inspiration Gold Mine was shipping gold concentrates from the mine. A new mill was erected by the company around 1937. The 250-ton mill was surrounded by a small mining camp and a crosscut tunnel was begun to connect with the downward dip of the Pete and Joe Vein. When reported in 1937, the crosscut had reached 1,300 feet or about half way to the expected vein (Tansley et al. 1933; Tansley 1937; WPA 1940).
The Pritchett mine is located at the head of Bear Gulch at an elevation of about 9,000 feet. The mine was apparently active around 1914. The mine has been developed with an adit with a 200 foot crosscut. The ore was mined from a chute at the contact between granite and slate or fine grained black gneiss. At the mine a 5-stamp mill equipped with a plate and a Wilfley table concentrated the ores. High grade and concentrated ores were hauled to Twin Bridges where they were sent by rail to smelters (Winchell 1914).
The Red Bell claim is at the head of Goodrich Gulch, about half a mile below the Schmidt property. The mine was developed out of a 350 feet adit in gneiss. Talc was encountered 150 feet from the portal in a zone of crushed ground. Ore from the mine was auriferous pyrite and argentiferous galena with a little sphalerite.
The Richmond group of mines in Goodrich Gulch consists of the Eagle and Hummingbird claims. The mine was originally located by the Richmond brothers around the turn of the century. It was operated by the brothers for a number of years. In 1936, the property was in the hands of Jack Richmond, Al Jacobs and Ben Payne. These men operated the mine until 1942 and extracted about $33,000. The mine worked small quartz veins trending parallel to bedding planes in Flathead quartzite and Wolsey shale. Ore returns averaged around 3.5 ounces of gold per ton. The mine was developed by four relatively short adits on the the Eagle claim and a similar number on Hummingbird (Johns 1961).
The Schmitt property is located on the right fork at the extreme head of Goodrich Gulch, about 800 feet below the divide and 1,000 feet above running water. The mine was developed through a 120 foot adit through shale. The oxidized ores extracted were rich in gold; sulphides below the oxidized level were of low grade. A. B. and W. H. Schmitt and partners shipped gold-silver-lead ore from their claims (Winchell 1914; Tansley 1937).
The Strawn mine is located in Belle (Beall) Canyon, several miles northeast of Twin Bridges; it is five miles by road from Waterloo Station. The Barnes-King Mining Co. was said to have produced $50,000 in ore from the mine. Surficial enrichment may have played an important role in the shallow ores mined by the Barnes-King Mining Co. Later the Jodie Mining and Milling Company was able to ship a limited amount of $30 gold ore from the mine. In the 1930s, J. E. Strawn of Silver Star was the owner and operator. The mine was developed with three adits that were connected with stopes and raises. On the No. 2, or upper, adit a stope about 100 feet long yielded most of the early production. The No. 3 adit is 133 feet lower extended several hundred feet into a brecciated and silicified limestone bed (Tansley et al. 1933).
The mine was equipped with a compressor rated at 265 cubic feet that was driven by a 50 h.p. Novo gas engine. Log cabins were located at the No. 2 and No. 3 adits. At the lower camp a old 5-stamp mill and a newer (1930s) vintage prospector's mill processed the ore. The newer mill was equipped with a 3 x 5 Ellis jaw crusher, a 22 inch diameter Ellis mill and an Ellis amalgamator. The mill had a capacity to run 120 pounds of ore per hour. One horse was used to skid or sled 1,200 pound loads of ore to the lower adit. Ore from the lower adit was hauled one mile by wagon and then transferred to truck to be hauled the remainder of the distance to Waterloo station. The mill was examined in 1981 when plans were made to reopen the site as a gravity reduction mill (Tansley, Schafer and Hart 1933; Beck 1981).
See Goldie claim under Crystal Lake Properties.
The Sunflower mine in Dry Georgia Gulch reported intermittent production from 1909 to 1924. It was part of the group of claims that comprised the High Ridge property. It was reported to have been developed by two adits that worked a narrow 2 foot wide vein containing argentiferous galena, gold and sphalerite (Tansley et al. 1933; WPA 1940; Johns 1961; Gray 1992c).
The Texas mine reported intermittent production from 1912 to 1928 (WPA 1940).
The Tidal Wave mine, for which the district is named, is in section 28 on a ridge north of Wet Georgia Gulch. The mine was the first claim in the district to be patented. The mine was apparently mining iron oxide and malachite ores. When observed in 1961, the mine consisted of two caved shafts, three adits and numerous pits and cuts (Johns 1961).
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau (AMRB)
1994 Mining districts of Montana. Maps 1:100,000 and Map #94-NRIS-129. Compiled and edited by Joel Chavez. Prepared by Montana State Library Natural Resource Information System (NRIS) for Montana Department of State Lands. Helena
Beaverhead National Forest
1989 "Cultural Resources Inventory Report: West Gold Tidal Wave Exploration", BNF Report No. 89-BE-6-8, Sheridan.
Beck, Barb Springer
1981 "Cultural Resource Inventory of the Claude Dale, Sam Bear Gold Company", Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson District.
Byrne, John and Frank Hunter
1898 Ninth Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana. State Publishing Company, Helena.
Byrne, John and John J. Barry
1902 Fourteenth Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana. Independent Publishing Company, Helena.
Cope, George F.
1936 "Statistical and Descriptive Report Upon the Mines of Madison County Montana", (Compiled by George F. Cope, Sept. 1888), Montana School of Mines, Butte.
Ferguson, Henry Gardiner and L. P. Benedict
1908 Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry, 11th Biennial Report.
1992a "Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation: Twin Bridges-Sheridan Federal Aid Project - F 29-1(20)34 Madison County, Montana", prepared for Montana Department of Transportation by GCM Services, Inc., Butte.
1992b "Deutschland Mine (24MA1315)", Cultural Resource Site Form.
1992c "Cooper #1 claim (24MA1317)", Cultural Resource Site Form.
Hart, Lyman H.
1933 "Mesothermal Copper Veins and Replacements", Ore Deposits of the Western States (Lindgren volume), American Institute Mining Met. Engineering, pp. 603-616.
Harter, R. F. H.
1930 "Geology of the Rudman Hill", Min. Truth, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 23-24.
Horton, Frederick W.
1916 "Molybdenum; Its Ores and Their Concentration", U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 111.
Johns, Willis M.
1961 "Geology and Ore Deposits of the Southern Tidal Wave Mining District Madison County, Montana", Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bulletin #24, Butte.
1992 "Cultural Resource Inventory and Assessment of Selected Tidal Wave District Mines, Madison County, Montana." Report for the Montana Department of State Lands prepared for HKM Associates, Billings by Western History Research, Bozeman.
Lorain, S. H.
1937 "Gold Lode Mining in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Madison County, Montana", U. S. Bureau of Mines, Inf. Circ. 6972.
Madison County History Association (M.C.H.A.)
1976 Pioneer Trails and Trials. self-published.
Sahinen, Uuno M.
1935 "Mining Districts of Montana", Thesis, Montana School of Mines, Butte.
Shoemaker, C. S. and John Miles
1896 Seventh Annual Report of the Inspector of Mines of the State of Montana, State Publishing Company, Helena.
Swallow, G. C., J. B. Trevarthen and Jacob Oliver
1891 Reports of Inspectors of Mines, State of Montana, year ending November 30th, 1890. Journal Publishing Company, Helena.
Tansley, Wilfred and Schafer, Paul A. , and Hart, Lyman H.
1933 "A Geological Reconnaissance of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Madison County, Montana", Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Mem. 9.
Winchell, Alexander Newton
1911 "A Theory for the Origin of Graphite as Exemplified in the Graphite Deposit near Dillon, Montana", Economic Geology, Vol. 6, pp 218-230.
1914 "Mining Districts of the Dillon Quadrangle, Montana and Adjacent Areas", U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 574.
Wolle, Muriel S.
1963 Montana Pay Dirt. A Guide to the Mining Camps of the Treasure State. Sage Books, Denver.
Work Projects Administration (WPA) Mineral Resources Survey
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